The inability of a kidney to excrete metabolites at normal plasma levels under conditions of normal loading, or the inability to retain electrolytes under conditions of normal intake. In the acute form (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE), it is marked by uremia and usually by oliguria or anuria, with hyperkalemia and pulmonary edema. The chronic form (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC) is irreversible and requires hemodialysis

The recommended herbs are:

  • Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata,
  • Radix et Rhizoma Rhei,
  • Radix Codonopsis,
  • Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae,
  • Radix Astragli,
  • Radix Ginseng, etc.